The Cerrado's wildlife includes:
- 10,000 plant species (4,400 endemic)
- 195 mammal species (14 endemic)
- 607 bird species (17 endemic)
- 225 reptile species (33 endemic)
- 186 amphibian species (28 endemic)
- 800 freshwater fish species (200 endemic)
The recently discovered species illustrate the uniqueness of the region. Among the newfound animals are a leggless lizard with a pointed snout (which resembles a snake more closely than it does a lizard), a horned toad, and a dwarf woodpecker.
The research team consisted of 26 scientists from various institutions: the University of São Paulo and its Museum of Zoology, the Federal Universities of São Carlos and Tocantins, and Conservation International Brazil. The scientists spent 29 days in the Cerrado, focusing their efforts within the Serra Geral do Tocantins Ecological Station, the second largest protected area within the Cerrado. During their expedition, they tallied a list of more than 440 species of vertebrates including a number of threatened species such as the hyacinth macaw, three-banded armadillo, marsh deer, and dwarf tinamou.
- Legless Lizard Among New Species Discovered in Cerrado Region of Brazil (Conservation International)
- Cerrado Biodiversity Hotspot (Conservation International)
- Serra do Tombador Preserve Created in Cerrado Grasslands (Nature Conservancy)
- The Cerrado (Nature Conservancy)